12 Volt Battery Guardian

Don't get caught with a flat battery; this easy-to-build circuit can cut off the power to a 12V fridge or car stereo system if the battery voltages drops below critical level. Electric fridges in vans and 4WDs are a great idea but if you are not careful, they can severely discharge the battery and leave you stranded. Maybe the battery will end up with severe damage as well. The same problem applies if you have a big stereo system and you like to play it without the motor running.

Main features:
  • Cuts power to load (eg, fridge) when battery voltage drops below a preset level.
  • 10A rating.
  • Low power drain.
  • Chirping sound during cut-out.
  • Flashing LED indication during cut-out.
  • Automatically reconnects power when battery recharged.
Operation on 12V is fine when the motor is running and battery charge is maintained but if the fridge is allowed to run for too long when the motor is stopped, it can flatten the battery in a relatively short time. This is where the Battery Guardian comes into play. It monitors the battery voltage and disconnects power to the fridge before the battery becomes too flat to allow the engine to be started again.

Parts layout:

PCB layout:

Circuit diagram:

Source: Silicon Chip 6 May 2002
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1 W Home Stereo Amplifier Rise

This is a one watt home stereo amplifier module project using the KA2209 IC from Samsung, which is equivalent to the TDA2822. It operates from 3-12V DC & will work from a battery since the dormant current drain is low. It requires no heat sink for normal use. The input & output are both ground referenced. Maximum output will be obtained with a 12V power supply & 8 ohm speaker, however it is suitable for driving headphones from a supply as low as 3V.

The Specifications of the home stereo amplifier :

D.C. input : 3 – 12 V at 200 – 500 mA max
Idle current : approx. 10 mA
Power output : > 1 Watt max. 4-8 ohms, 12V DC
Freq. Resp. : approx. 40 Hz to 200 kHz, 8 ohm, G=10
THD : < 1 % @ 750 mW, 4-8 ohm, 12V
Gain : approx. x10 (20 dB) OR x100 (40dB)
S/N ratio : > 80 dB, G = 20 dB
Sensitivity : < 300 mV, G = 20 dB
Input Impedance : approx. 10 k ohm


The gain is adjustable from ten to 100, i.e. twenty to 40 dB. Start with feedback resistors R1 and R3 of 1k ohm, this will give a gain of ten which ought to be adequate for most applications. In case you need more gain, you can remove resistors R1 and R3.This will give a gain of about 100, or 40 dB.The input attenuation can be adjusted by the potentiometer which can be used as a volume control. The IC gain ought to be kept as low as necessary to accomplish full output, with the in put potentiometer and your signal source at maximum.

Voltage Gain = 1+ R1/R2 = 1+R3/R4, however the maximum gain with no outside feedback is about 100, or 40dB. (GdB = 20log Gv)

This will keep the signal to noise ratio as high as feasible. Additional gain provided by the amplifier will reduce the S/N ratio by a similar amount, since the input noise figure is constant. Other values for R1 and R3 of between 1k and 10k ohm can be used if an intermediate gain level is necessary.

If driving a pair of headphones, you may also need a 100 ohm resistor in series with each output to reduce the output level, depending on headphone impedance & sensitivity. Make positive you start with the volume right down to check. Numerous headphones may be driven from the amplifier in the event you wish, since most headphones have at least 16 ohm impedance, or more often 32 ohm.

There are only a few outside parts, the IC contains most of the necessary circuitry. R1,R2 and R3,R4 are the feedback resistors. C1 provides power supply decoupling. C2 and C3 are the input coupling capacitors, which block any DC that might-be present on the inputs. C4,C5 block DC in the feed back circuit from the inverting inputs, and C6,C7 are the output coupling capacitors. C8, R5 and C9,R6 act as Nobel networks providing a high frequency load to maintain stability at frequencies where loud speaker inductive reactant may become excessive. The pot provides adjustable input level attenuation.

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12V Speed Controller Dimmer

This handy circuit can be used as a speed controller for a 12V motor rated up to 5A (continuous) or as a dimmer for a 12V halogen or standard incandescent lamp rated up to 50W. It varies the power to the load (motor or lamp) using pulse width modulation (PWM) at a pulse frequency of around 220Hz.  SILICON CHIP has produced a number of DC speed controllers over the years, the most recent being our high-power 24V 40A design featured in the March & April 2008 issues. Another very popular design is our 12V/24V 20A design featured in the June 1997 issue and we have also featured a number of reversible 12V designs.
Project Image :
12v-speed-controllerdimmer pro
 12V Speed Controller/Dimmer Project Image

For many applications though, most of these designs are over-kill and a much simpler circuit will suffice. Which is why we are presenting this basic design which uses a 7555 timer IC, a Mosfet and not much else. Being a simple design, it does not monitor motor back-EMF to provide improved speed regulation and nor does it have any fancy overload protection apart from a fuse. However, it is a very efficient circuit and the kit cost is quite low.

Parts layout:

12v-speed-controllerdimmer2_Parts layout

Connection diagram:

12v-speed-controllerdimmer3_Connection diagram

There are many applications for this circuit which will all be based on 12V motors, fans or lamps. You can use it in cars, boats, and recreational vehicles, in model boats and model railways and so on. Want to control a 12V fan in a car, caravan or computer? This circuit will do it for you. The circuit uses a 7555 timer (IC1) to generate variable width pulses at about 210Hz. This drives Mosfet Q3 (via transistors Q1 & Q2) to control the speed of a motor or to dim an incandescent lamp.

Circuit diagram :
12v-speed-controllerdimmer Circuit diagram
12V Speed Controller/Dimmer Circuit Diagram

While the circuit can dim 12V halogen lamps, we should point out that dimming halogen lamps is very wasteful. In situations where you need dimmable 12V lamps, you will be much better off substituting 12V LED lamps which are now readily available in standard bayonet, miniature Edison screw (MES) and MR16 halogen bases. Not only are these LED replacement lamps much more efficient than halogen lamps, they do not get anywhere near as hot and will also last a great deal longer.

Source : Streampowers
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A Simple Function Generator

Simple triangle-wave generators have a weakness in that the waveform of their output signal normally cannot be modified. The circuit presented here makes it possible to smoothly alter the waveform of a linearly rising and steeply trailing saw-tooth signal through a symmetrical triangle-wave to a slowly trailing, steeply rising linear sawtooth. The wanted waveform may be selected independently of the frequency, which can also be varied uniformly from 0.2 Hz to 8 kHz. At the same time, a rectangular signal with variable duty cycle (also independent of frequency) is available at the rectangular-signal output of the circuit.

The circuit consists of integrator IC1b, whose output is applied to comparator IC1c. The output of the comparator is a rectangular signal The output of IC1b is raised by amplifier IC1d to a level that allows the full output voltage range of the operational amplifier to be used. Op amp IC1a provides a stable virtual earth, whose level is set to half the supply voltage with P1. The smooth setting of the frequency is made possible by feedback of part of the output of the comparator to the input of the integrator via P2. This preset is usually not provided in standard triangle-wave generators. Network D1-R1-D2-R2-P3 makes it possible to give integrator capacitor C3 different charging and discharge times.

This arrangement enables the output signal at A1 and the duty cycle of the rectangular wave signal at A2 to be varied. Varying the amplification factor with P5 has no effect on the frequency set with P2. The slope of the signal edges, the transient responses, and the output voltage range (rail-to-rail or with some voltage drop) depend on the type of op amp used. The TL084 used in the prototype offers a good compromise between price and meeting the wanted parameters. The circuit is best built on a small piece of prototyping board. The circuit draws a current of not more than 12 mA.

Brief parameters:
Provides triangle-wave, sawtooth or rectangular signal
Waveform variable independently of frequency (triangle wave and sawtooth)
Duty cycle of rectangular signal can be set independently of frequency
Test and measurement
Pulse-width control
Summary of preset action:
P1 – sets virtual earth to a level equal to Ucc/2;
P2 – sets the frequency;
P3– sets the waveform;
P4 – sets the hysteresis of the comparator (frequency and amplitude of the triangle-wave signal)
P5 – sets the amplification of the triangle-wave and sawtooth signals.
Source by : Streampowers
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25W Audio Power Amplifier Rise

This audio power amplifier project is based on LM1875 amplifier module from National Semiconductor. It can deliver up to 30W of power using an 8 ohm load & dual 30V DC power supplies. It is designed to operate with maximum outside parts with current limit & thermal shutdown protection features . Other features include high gain, quick slew rate, wide power supply range, giant output voltage swing & high current capability.

Summary of the audio amply-fire features:

  • Low distortion: 0.015%, 1 kHz, 20 W
  • Wide power bandwidth: 70 kHz
  • Wide supply range 16V-60V
  • Up to 30 watts output power
  • Internal output protection diodes
  • Protection for AC & DC short circuits to ground
  • 94 dB ripple rejection
  • Plastic power package TO-220
25V Power Supply

The schematic below shows how the +25V DC & -25V DC are obtained. In order to provide power supply for two stereo amplifiers, a power transformer rating of 80VA with 240V/36V middle tapped secondary winding is used. The secondary output of the transformer is rectified by using 1N5401 diodes together with four electrolytic capacitors to smoother the ripple voltage. A fuse & a varistor are connected at the primary input to protect the circuit against power surge.

Audio Amplifier Module

The +25V & -25V DC power supply are connected to the audio amplifier module through a 2A fuse with the peripheral devices shown in the schematic below. The audio input signal to be amplified is coupled to pin one of LM1875 through the resistor R1 and electrolytic capacitor E5.

The output signal at pin four of LM1875 can be used to directly drive a 8 ohm loudspeaker. Resistor R6 and capacitor C5 prevent-the capacitance developed at the long speaker leads from driving the amplifier in to High Frequency Oscillation.

A heat-sink with a thermal resistance rating of one.4 Cecilius/Watt or better must be used or else the amplifier module will-be cut-off from operation due to the heat that will build up in the coursework of the operation of the amplifier. Take note that the heat sink tab on the IC module is internally connected to the -25V power supply hence it must be isolated from the heat sink by the use of an insulating washer. If this is not done, the negative rail will be shorted to ground.

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100W Guitar Power Amplifier Rise

The power amp board has remained unchanged since it was first published in 2002. It definitely is not broken, so there is no reason to fix it. The picture below shows a fully assembled board (obtainable as shown as M27). Using TIP35/36C transistors, the output stage is deliberately huge overkill. This ensures reliability under the most arduous stage conditions. No amplifier can be made immune from everything, but this does come close.

Guitar Power Amplifier Board

The power amp (like the earlier version) is loosely based on the 60 Watt amp historically in the past published (Project 03), but it's increased gain to match the preamp. Other modifications include the short circuit protection - the tiny groups of parts next to the bias diodes (D2 and D3). This new version is not massively different from the original, but has adjustable bias, and is designed to provide a "constant current" (i.e. high impedance) output to the speakers - this is achieved using R23 and R26. Note that with this arrangement, the gain will change depending on the load impedance, with lower impedance giving lower power amp gain. This is not a controversy, so may safely be ignored.

Ought to the output be shorted, the constant current output characteristic will provide an preliminary level of protection, but is not foolproof. The short circuit protection will limit the output current to a comparatively safe level, but a sustained short will cause the output transistors to fail if the amp is driven hard. The protection is designed not to operate under normal conditions, but will limit the peak output current to about 8.5 Amps. Under these conditions, the internal fuses (or the output transistors) will probably blow if the short is not detected in time.

Figure 2 - Power Amplifier

Figure two shows the power amp PCB parts - except for R26 which doesn't mount on the board. See Figure 1B to see where this ought to be physically mounted. The bias current is adjustable, & ought to be set for about 25mA dormant current (more on this later). The recommendation for power transistors has been changed to higher power devices. This will give improved reliability under sustained heavy usage.

As shown, the power transistors will have an simple time driving any load down to four ohms. In case you don't use the PCB (or are happy to mount power transistors off the board), you can use TO3 transistors for the output stage. MJ15003/4 transistors are high power, & will run cooler because of the TO-3 casing (lower thermal resistance). Watch out for counterfeits though! There's plenty of other high power transistors that can be used, & the amp is tolerant of substitutes (as long as their ratings are at least equal to the devices shown). The PCB can accommodate Toshiba or Motorola 150W flat-pack power transistors with relative ease - in case you desired to go that way. TIP3055/2966 or MJE3055/2955 may even be used for light or ordinary duty.

At the input finish (as shown in Figure 1B), there is provision for an auxiliary output, & an input. The latter is switched by the jack, so you can use the "Out" & "In" connections for an outside effects unit. Alternatively, the input jack can be used to connect an outside preamp to the power amp, disconnecting the preamp.

The speaker connections permit up to 8 Ohm speaker cabinets (giving four Ohms). Do not use less than four ohm lots on this amplifier - it is not designed for it, & won't give reliable service!

All the low value (i.e. 0.1 & 0.22 ohm) resistors must be rated at 5W. The 0.22 ohm resistors will get warm, so mount them away from other parts. Needless to say, I recommend using the PCB, as this has been designed for optimum performance, and the amp gives an excellent account of itself. So nice in fact, that it may even be used as a hi-fi amp, and it sounds excellent. In case you were to make use of the amp for hi-fi, the bias current ought to be increased to 50mA. Ideally, you would use better (faster / more linear) output transistors as well, but even with those specified the amp performs well indeed. This is largely because they are run at comparatively low power, and the extreme non-linearity effects would expect with only transistors do not occur because of the parallel output stage.

Make positive that the bias transistor is attached to of the drivers (the PCB is laid out to make this simple to do). A some quantity of heat sink compound as well as a cable tie will do the job well. The diodes are there to protect the amp from catastrophic failure ought to the bias servo be incorrectly wired (or set for maximum current). All diodes ought to be 1N4001 (or 1N400? - anything in the 1N400x range is fine). A heat sink is not needed for any of the driver transistors.

The life of a guitar amp is a hard, and I recommend that you use the largest heat sink you can afford, since it is common to have elevated temperatures on stage (chiefly due to all the lighting), and this reduces the safety margin that normally applies for domestic equipment. The heat sink ought to be rated at 0.5° C/Watt to permit for worst case long term operation at up to 40°C (this is not unusual on stage).

Make sure that the speaker connectors are isolated from the chassis, to keep the integrity of the earth isolation parts in the power supply, & to make sure that the high impedance output is maintained.
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230 Volt AC To Inverter Switching Circuit Diagram


                  Before three weeks i am introduced  inverter circuit diagram but the circuit not included ac to inverter switching part so today i introducing a 230 Volt Ac to inverer switching circuit diagram .

Circuit showing a inverter switching  . Here i have used  bc 558 ,BC 548 and a relay for making this circuit . 230 volt connected to the base of the transistor Q1.When the power is ON positive volt coming to the base of the transistor so the relay circuit is open and load working in 230 V AC .When the power is OFF ground voltage coming to the base of the transistor so the Base of the Q2 is positive there for the   relay circuit closed and load working in inverter input .Part list and applications are showing below.

Part List

Component No: Value  Usage
R1 100KΩ Emitter Load
R2 10K Ω Base Biasing 
R3180KΩ  Current Limiting 
Q1BC558  Switching  
Q2BC548   Switching 
D1 IN4007   Relay Balancing 
RL112 V  Inverter Switching 


Inverter Switching 

* AC Switching
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